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SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PROGRESS AND POLICY

International cooperation in S&T is a result of complication of science and specialization, which is the best way to enhance scientific research ability. Review China's participation in international S&T cooperation process, which has important significance to understand the status of China and promote scientific research strength. Coauthor and project cooperation are the main carrier of S&T cooperation, using WOS database and national and international S&T cooperation projects website, China international S&T cooperation website, Chinese academy of sciences academy of engineering Chinese official website, then search the information about coauthor and project cooperation from 1987 to 2016,selecting the level of cooperation, cooperation area, and cooperation hot to quantitative analysis. The study found that: ① coauthor and project cooperation were the focus of present “polarization diffusion” and “shift” in the situation of cooperation, cooperation with emerging economies is relatively scarce; ②coauthor and project cooperation continued to deepen, but the projects of international leading type and core technology research are scare, accurate cooperation can enhance the quality of cooperation; ③the areas of coauthor and project cooperation are gradually expanding, most of these focus on mathematical chemistry and natural science, information science as a new discipline has gradually entered into the vision of cooperation, social sciences cooperation needs more policy, funds and personnel support.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 1-9 [Abstract]( 7HTML (1 KB)  PDF (4310 KB)  ( 2 )

Crowdfunding provides a new funding channel for smallmicro enterprises to raise funds conveniently and quickly.It selects 731 projects initiated on the famous crowdfunding websiteJingDong Crowdfunding from November 2016 to May 2017 as research samples, sorts out the various index data based on value cocreation theory, and conducts impact factor analysis of the projects performance through logit regression and multivariate linear regression.The empirical results show that the value creation process of sponsors including cocreation opportunities, project planning and project implementation positively significant influence the project financing performance, the positive impact of sponsor learning on financing performance is somewhat significant; the relationship experience in the value creation process of supporters somewhat significantly affects financing amount, but inluence of the supporter learning is not significant; the encounter process of value cocreation affects the financing performance positively significant.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 10-17 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1189 KB)  ( 0 )

By using the data of the GEM companies from 2012 to 2016 as a sample,we tested the impact of industry leaders' R&D information disclosure qualities on R&D spillover effects of companies in the same industry,and consider the difference of this effect between the different motivations (industry status) and capacities (financing constraints) of companies in the same industry.The result shows that:The quality of industry leaders' R&D information disclosure is significantly positively correlated with the R&D spillover effect,and this effect is more obvious for companies in the same industry with higher industry status and lower financing constraints.In addition,we find that the influence of R&D information disclosure on the R&D spillover effect is mainly in the research stage.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 18-26 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1038 KB)  ( 0 )

Based on the resource-based theory, this paper put forward a dynamic mechanism of convergence of punctuated equilibrium influence of contextual ambidexterity model, use organizational integration as mediated variables, entrepreneurial orientation and organizational context as segmented moderated variables. Based on the survey data of high-tech enterprises 210employees,we find:①punctuate equilibrium is positively related to a contextual ambidexterity;②organizational integration mediates the relationship between punctuate equilibrium and contextual ambidexterity;③entrepreneurial orientation segmented moderates the relationship between punctuate equilibrium and organizational integration and the relationship between organizational integration and contextual ambidexterity;④organizational context segmented moderates the relationship between organizational integration and contextual ambidexterity. Study on the dynamic process model from the static equilibrium to contextual ambidexterity formation, revealed the formation mechanism of contextual ambidexterity, has important practical significance for firms to achieve ambidexterity equilibrium.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 27-35 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1101 KB)  ( 0 )

Technology transfer mode of new R&D institutions is of profound influence on promoting industrial structural upgrade and enhancing regional economy quality.Deducing from the theoretical model, the Pasteur quadrant is redeveloped to construct New Pasteur Quadrant Which meets the characteristics of New R&D institutions technology transfer in the new development period.From this perspective, the paper analyzes ITRI Technology Transfer Model systematically in the three dimensions of "MissionStructureOperation" .After condensing its successful experience,the results release that more attention should be paid to develop New R&D institutions technology transfer in the following five aspects: the organizational leadership, the toplevel design and layout, mixed ownership building, technology industrialization projects hatching, financial support and playing private capital Synchronously, release the leading role of assessment and evaluation to the stakeholders.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 36-45 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2255 KB)  ( 1 )

By using super efficiency SBM model to measure the provincial innovation efficiency, constructing a panel data model with weight matrix which including innovation elements agglomeration, taking the economic development level, higher education development level and industry structure into consideration, the paper empirical studies eastern, middle and western universities' innovation elements agglomeration's direct spillover effect on local regional innovation efficiency and its indirect spillover effect on other regions.The study finds out that, first, the agglomeration of universities' human and financial resources' direct spillover effects on regional innovation efficiency is nonlinear in every region, only the agglomeration levels within moderate threshold could they exert agglomeration effect.Second, the two innovation elements' indirect spillover effects are general negative, it shows that the interregional universities lack of academic exchange and resource sharing among different provinces, which inhibited the transformation of new technology and new patents, thereof restrained the improvement of innovation efficiency.Third, the development level of economic and higher education's effect showed different, but the industries' structure generally showed impassive effect, it shows that the current industries' structure don't match what they needed to improve the innovation efficiency, and show the negative impacts.Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions to promote universities' innovation elements allocation, improve elements usage rate and increase innovation efficiency according above study results.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 46-51 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1045 KB)  ( 0 )

Analyzes the development of electric vehicles from electric vehicle's patents, types and sales. It divides out three stages of the development of electric vehicles in China, namely, the simultaneous development stage of pure electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles;the competing development stage of pure electric cars and hybrid cars ; the stage of the pure electric vehicles dominated. Each stage of the actor network is different, the key actors are not exactly the same. Through the theory of actor network, we conduct the research on the evolution of China's electric vehicle technology innovation, the following is concluded: firstly, the changes of the actors and their structure of the actor network impact the development of electric vehicles innovation in China; secondly, "non-human" actors play an important role in the evolution of electric vehicle technology innovation; thirdly, the evolution of China's electric vehicle technology innovation is the result of the interaction of actors in different periods.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 60-68 [Abstract]( 2HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1649 KB)  ( 1 )

The paper aims to analyze the impact of China's postion in global value chain on innovation efficiency, we use New Classical Economic Theory to make assumptions. We use noncompetitive inputoutput method to calculate 19 representative industries' positions in global value chain, then we calculate 19 representative industries' innovation efficiency, and it is decomposed into technical progress index, pure technical efficiency index, and scale efficiency index, and industrial differences can be observed in the decompostion. On the basis of empirical results, in the research and development stage, China's industries in global value chain have positive effect on the technological frontier, and it can widen gap between the whole level and technological frontier. In the production stage, China's industries in global value chain have negative effect on the technological frontier, and it can narrow gap between the whole level and technological frontier.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 69-76 [Abstract]( 2HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1351 KB)  ( 0 )

Based on theoretical analyzing the promoting mechanism of institutional quality and knowledge capital affecting industrial environment productivity growth, this paper used panel data to empirically analyze the promoting effect of institutional quality adjusting knowledge capital to industrial environment productivity growth. There exit significant positive effects of institutional quality and institutional quality adjusting knowledge capital significant positively affect industrial environment productivity growth. It is an important way to promote the growth of industrial environment productivity on the basis of institutional quality improvement and knowledgebased capital structure optimization.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 77-83 [Abstract]( 2HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1031 KB)  ( 0 )

This paper constructs the theoretical framework of the innovative logic, innovative behavior and innovation performance, which adjusted by innovative environment. The model exploring the relationship between innovation logic and performance begins with the innovation behavior: the institutional logic of the new venture reflects the demands of strengthening the legitimacy, the technological logic reflects the demands of improving the technical competitiveness, both the behavior of social relations and the behavior of technological innovation can be beneficial to enhance legitimacy and technological competitiveness. Besides, when the innovative environment presents different characteristics, the effect of innovation logic on innovative behavior is different. The model can explain and predict the different responses and effects of startups in different environments. This study also shows that ventures need to make a certain logical adjustment to match the dynamic environment, and then carry out the enterprise's innovation activities.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 84-89 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1078 KB)  ( 0 )

In the context of clusters, small and micro enterprises collaborative entrepreneurship network evolution has attracted more and more attention of scholars in various fields.Among them, the key influencing factors research is a basic problem.Based on the interpretative structural modeling method, the paper refines 27 core categories, such as adaptive behavior, governance model, imitation learning and network sharing resources in Hangzhou software clusters context and classifies into two story lines.On this basis, combined with Hangzhou software cluster context, this paper interprets further cooperative behavior, adaptive behavior, network sharing resources and cluster policy context.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 90-95 [Abstract]( 1HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1169 KB)  ( 0 )

From enterprise standard to industry cluster standard, it is a key step to realize popularization and diffusion of technology standard, and the influence of homogenization competition among cluster enterprises on the adoption of new technology standards of cluster enterprises is worth studying.This study analyzed the effect of the homogenization of competition within the industry cluster of enterprises will adopt new technical standards, technical standards base on old network externalities, the new standard of superiority, new standard licensing fees, enterprise cluster compatible strategies.Research shows that the homogenization competition among cluster enterprises has opposite influence on the adoption of new technology standards under different scenarios, but overall, the homogenization of competition between enterprises clusters reduces the new technology standard adoption.Beyond that, as a moderating variable, the competition among cluster enterprises regulates the relationship between the old technology standards, network externalities, the superiority of new technology standards, the licensing standards of new technology standards and the adoption willingness of new technology standards.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 96-102 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1031 KB)  ( 0 )

M&A is an important growth method for scitech enterprises,and the organizational learning in M&A is essential to improve the performance of M&A.This paper makes use of the survival regression,analyzes how the M&A experiences and the feedback of M&A performance of scitech enterprises influence the decisionmaking of serial M&A,and explores the learning mechanism of organizational learning in M&A.The conclusion is that,the more M&A happens ,the better the feedback of M&A will perform,the higher probability that the scitech enterprises would like to make the decisions of continuous M&A,the good performance feedback of M&A strengthens the impact of the number of M&A in purchasing decisions.This conclusion is of theoretical guiding significance to the improvement of the efficiency on M&A of scientific and technological enterprises in the serial M&A.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 103-108 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1025 KB)  ( 0 )

According to the special institutional environment in china, this paper studies the effect of the shortterm loan and longterm investment on innovation activities of Chinese Enterprises. This study shows that as an alternative financing strategy, the shortterm loan and longterm investment has a negative effect on enterprise innovation ability, meanwhile according to the different property right and different scale, there are obvious differences in the negative effect. Further research on the mechanism of influence shows that through the interference of human capital investment and R&D investment, the shortterm loan and longterm investment can inhibit the accumulation of enterprise innovation capability. In addition, this paper also studies the impact of the shortterm loan and longterm investment on the relationship between innovation and enterprise growth. It is found that the shortterm loan and longterm investment has weakened the sensitivity of innovation and enterprise growth, and further proves the existence of the negative effect of shortterm loan and longterm investment. Finally, this paper considers the influence of the financial environment, found that monetary policy and regional financial development level both can significantly affect the effect of the shortterm loan and longterm investment on enterprise innovation ability.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 109-116 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1041 KB)  ( 0 )

By drawing on the MOS model, the paper explores the influential mechanism of entrepreneurship policy supply on entrepreneurial competency, and constructs a heterogeneous framework of entrepreneurship policy supply. Research shows that:① Entrepreneurs can be divided into three types: Necessitydriven, Opportunitydriven and Innovationdriven, among which necessitydriven entrepreneurs are characterized with passivity, risk avoidance and wealthchasing. And they have the advantage of cognitive competency and functional competency. Opportunitydriven entrepreneurs are characterized with opportunitysearching, capital accumulation and etc., and they have stronger cognitive competency and social competency .Innovationdriven entrepreneurs are characterized with innovation reform ,resourceprizing and etc., and they are equipped with better cognitive competency and psychological competency;②By stimulating motivations, increasing opportunities and improving skills, entrepreneurship policy supply can enhance the entrepreneurial competency, which contributes to the recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities and integration of entrepreneurial resources. Thus it will help entrepreneurs to improve entrepreneurial performance;③In view of the discrepancies among entrepreneurial competency and entrepreneurial policy needs of various entrepreneurs, the government should implement heterogeneous entrepreneurship policy supply. For necessitydriven entrepreneurs, this paper suggests that government emphasize on the entrepreneurial policy of motivationstimulating and opportunityincreasing. At the same time, government should stress the entrepreneurial policy of motivationpromoting and skillsdeveloping for opportunitydriven entrepreneurs. Furthermore, government should pay attention to the entrepreneurial policy of skillsimproving and opportunityraising for innovationdriven entrepreneurs.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 117-123 [Abstract]( 1HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1238 KB)  ( 0 )

This paper investigates the relationship between trade credit and corporate R&D investments, and whether this relationship varies under different monetary policies. Our results show that trade credit improves corporate R&D investments through easing financial constraints of R&D investments, and this effect is stronger under tightened monetary policies. Further, stateowned enterprises are able to use trade credit to improve their R&D investments, especially under tightened monetary policies; however, these results are not found among private enterprises. This phenomenon may be due to the stronger power to obtain and control trade credit by stateowned enterprises. Our results reveal the relationships between trade credit and R&D investments under different monetary policies, emphasizes the importance of the ability to obtain and control trade credit, and provide a new method for companies who are facing financing constraints in R&D investments to solve their problems.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 124-130 [Abstract]( 0HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1034 KB)  ( 0 )

Based on the literature review of the open innovation and appropriability mechanism, the coupling relationship is analyzed.By constructing the internal index systems and using scatter degree method, the study gets the index weight of the internal indicators.And the coupling degree is evaluated via the coupling function.The empirical results show that the open innovation and the appropriability mechanism of the sample firm are of middle coupling degree and coordination degree.The results provide a basis for explaining why firms are both openness and appropriability and further clarifying the role of the appropriability mechanism in open innovation activities.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 131-138 [Abstract]( 1HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1087 KB)  ( 0 )

Prosocial motivation has a special value and significance in China,where collectiveculture is dominant.Thus,the present study aims to reveal how prosocial motivation influences team creativity through informationalbased knowledge integration and affectbased team commitment.Using data from 50 R&D teams,we found that 1) team prosocial motivation is significantly and positively related to team creativity,2) knowledge integration and team affective commitment mediate the relationship between team prosocial motivation and team creativity,and 3) the indirect effect of knowledge integration is stronger than that of team affective commitment.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 139-146 [Abstract]( 4HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1099 KB)  ( 0 )

Human capital characteristics of venture capitalists have close relation with venture capital fundraising. Using the data on145 fundraising teams and 252 team leaders of the top 50 VC institutions in China,this paper empirically explores the relation between fundraising of VCs and human capital characteristics of venture capitalists. The results show that,from the team level,overseas background,and education degree has significant positive influence on fundraising scale,while average tenure has significant negative effect on fundraising scale; from the individual level of team leader,overseas background and professional background of administration has significant positive effect on fundraising scale; and overseas background has positive effect on the foreign currency fundraising from both team and leader perspective; besides,compared to team leader's individual characteristics,general characteristics of team are more important in VC fundraising. This article has deepened the study on VC fundraising,and provided theoretical advice for VCs to develop human capital and teams for fundraising.

2018 Vol. 35 (11): 147-153 [Abstract]( 1HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1030 KB)  ( 0 )